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Contents

General    (2)

    (2A)
Full name of the tool Macleod - Common Logic Environment for Ontology Development
Description of the tool This program consists of a set of scripts designed for key reasoning tasks frequently encountered in ontology design and verification. At the moment it focuses on automating tasks that can be accomplished independent of the semantic of concepts and relations. These tasks are consistency checking of ontologies and their modules as well as checking whether competency questions, providing as lemmas, are entailed.

While the program primarily targets first-order ontologies specified in the Common Logic (CL) syntax, some parts of it can also be used for reasoning about ontologies in LADR (Prover9/Mace4) or TPTP syntax (accepted by many first-order theorem provers and model finders). The tasks are accomplished by running existing automated theorem provers and model finders in parallel to establish consistency or inconsistency of an ontology or a module thereof, or to prove a sentence from an ontology (or module) or to find a counterexample of the sentence. Moreover, the tool exploits the modularity of ontologies, which manifests itself in its file CL imports structure.     (2A1)

In the near future it will be integrated with COLORE to provide design, verification, and other reasoning support for all ontologies in the repository.     (2A2)

Link to the tool https://github.com/thahmann/macleod
Tool home page https://github.com/thahmann/macleod
Download page https://github.com/thahmann/macleod/archive/master.zip
Author Torsten Hahmann
Contact torsten@cs.toronto.edu
Institutional sponsor University of Toronto
Last version
License GNU GPL
Mailing List

Exploration    (2B)

    (2B1)
Find ontologies with specific domain coverage No
-- comment Optional remarks
Compare domain coverage across ontologies No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess or characterize breadth of domain coverage of an ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess or characterize depth or detail of domain coverage of an ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess or characterize use considerations of ontology including licensing, training, cost, updating, software requirements, and security No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess complexity of concept definitions (necessary and sufficient properties) and use of axioms No
-- comment Optional remarks
Identify number and ratio of concepts, relations, and subclassing No
-- comment Optional remarks
Identify frequency of use of ontology language features in an ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Identify age and use statistics of an ontology and its versions No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess the inferencing power of an ontology Yes
-- comment proving formally expressed compentency questions
Rate ontologies on their popularity or review feedback No
-- comment Optional remarks
Other ontology quality and fitness support for exploration phase (describe capability)

Management    (2C)

    (2C1)
Distinguish between conceptual and operational ontologies and objectives No
-- comment Optional remarks
Generate ontology application and performance requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Organize and track the life cycle requirements and progression of an ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Organize and maintain a collection of related ontologies and ontology modules No
-- comment Optional remarks
Provide statistics on ontology versioning and use No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide ontology development per a quality assurance methodology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess the reusability of a planned ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Other ontology quality and fitness support for management phase (describe capability)

    (2D1)
Does Macleod guide formulation of ontology requirements?
Guide formulation of domain scope and detail requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide formulation of goodness of design requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide formulation of data and information requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide formulation of semantic and reasoning requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide formulation of interface requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide formulation of level of effort requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Facilitate framing a set of competency questions exemplifying ontology objectives No
-- comment Optional remarks
Choose metaphysical methodology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Does Macleod allow one to choose an extant ontology for reuse?
Choose extant top ontology for reuse Yes
-- comment any from COLORE
Choose extant core ontologies for reuse Yes
-- comment any from COLORE
Apply a style of ontological analysis to design No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide design to optimize normalization, factoring, and simplicity of ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide application of open world or closed world semantics No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide ontology design to achieve inferencing requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide ontology design to achieve scalability requirements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Enable adjustable query and inference performance No
-- comment Optional remarks
Does Macleod offer design patterns based on current ontology or design context?
Offer application patterns based on current ontology or design context No
-- comment Optional remarks
Offer ontology language patterns based on current ontology or design context No
-- comment Optional remarks
Offer methodology patterns based on current ontology or design context No
-- comment Optional remarks
Offer other patterns based on current ontology or design context No
-- comment Optional remarks
Integrate selected design patterns into an ontology design No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess correctness or performance of an ontology design No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide and facilitate modularization of ontology Yes
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide ontology design for visualization No
-- comment Optional remarks
Other ontology quality and fitness support for design phase (describe capability)

General Development    (2E1)

    (2E1A)
Does Macleod allow one to choose an ontology language?
Choose ontology language No
-- comment Optional remarks
Choose formal logic language No
-- comment Optional remarks
Choose RDF support No
-- comment Optional remarks
Mix ontology languages No
-- comment Optional remarks
Generate ontology code from requirements specification No
-- comment Optional remarks
Generate or enforce selected design patterns in ontology code No
-- comment Optional remarks
Feedback on consistency of granularity and regularity of domain ontology structure No
-- comment Optional remarks
Manage lexical naming and annotation of ontology elements No
-- comment Optional remarks
Ensure proper use and coding of RDF and Web resources No
-- comment Optional remarks
Enforce proper use and coding of URIs No
-- comment Optional remarks
Produce the current terminological inferences of an ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Optimize query and inference performance No
-- comment Optional remarks
Detect violations of domain, referential, or semantic integrity No
-- comment Optional remarks
Overall, detect and correct coding errors or inconsistencies Yes
-- comment Optional remarks
Other ontology quality and fitness support for build phase (describe capability)

Concept Development    (2E2)

    (2E2A)
Ensure proper separation and coding of concepts and facts No
-- comment Optional remarks
Ensure kind-of nature and consistency of subclassing Yes
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide subclass versus class individual determinations No
-- comment Optional remarks
Monitor depth of subclassing consistency across a domain ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Generate prototypical instances (individuals) to help verify class intent and class subsumption No
-- comment Optional remarks
Detect and guide use of multiple inheritance No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide use of disjointness axioms No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide use of necessary and sufficient properties in concept definitions No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide use of existential versus universal quantification in class restrictions No
-- comment Optional remarks
Enforce proper use of conjunctions versus disjunctions No
-- comment Optional remarks

Relationship Development    (2E3)

    (2E3A)
Ensure proper use and coding of relations No
-- comment Optional remarks
Ensure proper use and coding of data types No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess and enforce consistency and completeness of range and domain constraints Yes
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess and enforce consistency and completeness of inverse relations No
-- comment Optional remarks
Ensure proper use and coding of transitive relations No
-- comment Optional remarks

Validation    (2F)

    (2F1)
Verify that ontology requirements are met Yes
-- comment through competency questions
Can Macleod assess query performance?
Assess query precision and recall performance No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess query time performance No
-- comment Optional remarks
Can Macleod assess inference performance?
Assess inferencing time performance No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess inferencing completeness performance No
-- comment Optional remarks
Generate characteristic queries and tests No
-- comment Optional remarks
Accept validation test sets or inputs Yes
-- comment Optional remarks
Can Macleod assure computability of ontology?
Assure semantically adequate computability of ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assure mathematically complete computability of ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Verify that two ontologies are interoperable Yes
-- comment interpretations can be proved
Validate the intended functionality of software using the ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Validate instance data conforming to an ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess accuracy, correctness, and completeness of ontology terminological content No
-- comment Optional remarks
Guide or adjust ontology in accord with validation results No
-- comment Optional remarks
Other ontology quality and fitness support for validation phase (describe capability)

Integration and Use    (2G)

    (2G1)
Export ontology in different languages Yes
-- comment currently supported: TPTP, LADR (Prover9/Mace4)
Integrate ontology with other ontologies No
-- comment Optional remarks
Integrate ontology with other information system resources No
-- comment Optional remarks
Assess or track user experience with ontology No
-- comment Optional remarks
Enable user to modify or extend ontology to address deficiencies No
-- comment Optional remarks
Create mappings from ontologies to and from data and data sources No
-- comment Optional remarks
Other ontology quality and fitness support for integration and use phase (describe capability)

Maintenance    (2H)

    (2H1)
Promote reuse of ontology Yes
-- comment through mappings/interpretaions
Capture ontology errors during use No
-- comment Optional remarks
Profile use of ontology elements during use No
-- comment Optional remarks
Compare and map between ontologies Yes
-- comment mappings/interpretations between ontologies
Track ontology changes and control versions Yes
-- comment within COLORE
Other ontology quality and fitness support for maintenance phase (describe capability)