Hybrid System

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Example of a Hybrid system discussion and reasoning

Reasoning With Neural Tensor Networks for Knowledge Base Completion by Socher, Chen, Manning and Ng Reasoning With Neural Tensor Networks for Knowledge Base Completion Richard Socher , Danqi Chen*, Christopher D. Manning, Andrew Y. Ng Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA richard@socher.org, {danqi,manning}@stanford.edu, ang@cs.stanford.edu Abstract Knowledge bases are an important resource for question answering and other tasks but often suffer from incompleteness and lack of ability to reason over their discrete entities and relationships. In this paper we introduce an expressive neural tensor network suitable for reasoning over relationships between two entities. Previous work represented entities as either discrete atomic units or with a single entity vector representation. We show that performance can be improved when entities are represented as an average of their constituting word vectors. This allows sharing of statistical strength between, for instance, facts involving the Sumatran tiger and Bengal tiger. Lastly, we demonstrate that all models improve when these word vectors are initialized with vectors learned from unsupervised large corpora. We assess the model by considering the problem of predicting additional true relations between entities given a subset of the knowledge base. Our model outperforms previous models and can classify unseen relationships in WordNet and FreeBase with an accuracy of 86.2% and 90.0%, respectively. 1 Introduction Ontologies and knowledge bases such as WordNet [1], Yago [2] or the Google Knowledge Graph are extremely useful resources for query expansion [3], coreference resolution [4], question answering (Siri), information retrieval or providing structured knowledge to users. However, they suffer from incompleteness and a lack of reasoning capability. Much work has focused on extending existing knowledge bases using patterns or classifiers applied to large text corpora. However, not all common knowledge that is obvious to people is expressed in text [5, 6, 2, 7]. We adopt here the complementary goal of predicting the likely truth of additional facts based on existing facts in the knowledge base. Such factual, common sense reasoning is available and useful to people. For instance, when told that a new species of monkeys has been discovered, a person does not need to find textual evidence to know that this new monkey, too, will have legs (a meronymic relationship inferred due to a hyponymic relation to monkeys in general). We introduce a model that can accurately predict additional true facts using only an existing database. This is achieved by representing each entity (i.e., each object or individual) in the database as a vector. These vectors can capture facts about that entity and how probable it is part of a certain relation. Each relation is defined through the parameters of a novel neural tensor network which can explicitly relate two entity vectors. The first contribution of this paper is the new neural tensor network (NTN), which generalizes several previous neural network models and provides a more powerful way to model relational information than a standard neural network layer.

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Just tech-question: is it possible somehow to beautify in-line text in "Example of a Hybrid system discussion and reasoning"?

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